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Here is a short intro about Issue 94. The highlights etc....





TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                


Note from the President                                                        2

            Mary Rodgers

Update on the nomination for council members

            Sandra J. Olney                                                        4

Affiliated Societies                                                                4

            Jill L. McNitt-Gray

Economically Developing Countries                                       4

            Jill L. McNitt-Gray

Call for Abstracts                                                                  5

            Brian L. Davis

ISB 2005 Tutorials                                                               6

            Walter Herzog

ISB 2005 Symposia

            Keith Williams, Frederico Casalo                              6

Editor’s Notes and Requests                                                 7

            Karen Søgaard

Biomechanics and Music                                                       8

            Brian L. Davis

Notes from the Archives                                                       9

            John Challis

Announcement of the Nike Award                                        10

            Mario A. Lafortune

Roadmap                                                                              11

            Brian L. Davis

ISB Student Grant Update 2005                                           12

            Alex Stacoff

Matching Dissertation Grant Report                                       14

            Justin Keogh

Announcement of the Winner of the Delsys Contest               16

            Tiziana DeLuca

Puzzle                                                                                                               17

            W. Lutz Bauer

Upcoming Meetings, Workshops                                          20

Membership News & Important Information                        22

            Graeme A. Wood




American Society of Biomechanics; Australian and New Zealand Society of Biomechanics;  British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences; Bulgarian Society of Biomechanics;  Canadian Society of Biomechanics/Société canadienne de biomécanique; Chinese Society of Sports Biomechanics; Comisia de Biomecanica Inginerie si Informatica (Romania);  Czech Society of Biomechanics;  Taiwanese Society of Biomechanics,Japanese Society  of Biomechanics; Korean Society of Sport Biomechanics; Polish Society of Biomechanics; Russian Society of Biomechanics; Société de biomécanique (France).

Note from the President





he new year brings with it many things—a time to start over, a time to improve, and a time to think about the future.

            In past president’s notes, I’ve spoken of the importance of the future of the field of biomechanics and how the students of today will be the professionals of tomorrow.  ISB continues to strive in assisting students in a number of ways.  We give awards and have tutorials.  But now we’re going one step further and, in essence, are also making history.

            As you may know, ISB elections are coming up.  For the first time, the student membership will be electing a student representative to the ISB Council.  By doing this, we will be giving students a stronger voice in the organization.  And making them an even more integral part of the ISB will benefit everyone.

            I encourage all of you to vote.  By voting, you are helping us to sustain a strong ISB leadership.  Regarding the elections, note Past-President Sandra Olney’s notice in this newsletter and update on the recruitment of students to run for the office of student representative in the council.

            Also with the approach of the new year, it’s a good time to reflect on our continuing growth as an international society.  Unfortunately, I discovered disturbing news from some recent communications.  Some people, it seems, think that the ISB is interested in a hierarchical relationship with other organizations.  Let me assure you all that this is not ISB’s agenda.  Those affiliated with ISB have formalized communication so that they can better work together with ISB in supporting biomechanics worldwide.  ISB seeks collaborative relationships in terms of building the biomechanics community.

This, along with recent e-mail conversations with other societies and input from our own member survey made me realize how important it is to clearly communicate ISB’s purpose.

            In 1973, ISB was founded at Penn State University in the United States for the purpose of promoting the study of all areas of biomechanics at the international level, with special emphasis given to the biomechanics of Human Movement. 



ISB encourages international contacts among scientists, promotes the dissemination of knowledge, and forms liaisons with other organizations to foster biomechanics research worldwide.

            Who are our members?  Scientists from a variety of disciplines including anatomy, physiology, engineering (mechanical, industrial aerospace, etc.), orthopedics, rehabilitation medicine, sport science and medicine, ergonomics, electro-physiological kinesiology, and others.

            Over the last 31 years, ISB has grown to include over 1,000 members.  ISB also provides for affiliate membership of other biomechanics organizations. Two additional societies are requesting affiliation (see Jill McNitt-Gray’s description in this newsletter).

            In addition, the ISB supports technical and working groups for the purpose of advancing knowledge in specialized areas within the field of biomechanics.  Current technical groups include Computer Simulation, Shoulder Biomechanics, Footwear Biomechanics, and 3-D Motion Analysis.  (Technical group satellite conferences and symposiums for 2005 are highlighted in this newsletter.)

            Members of ISB enjoy a number of perks including the quarterly newsletter which contains a Calendar of Scientific Events, Awards information, and special feature articles.  Members also get reduced journal subscription rates and discounts on registration fees at ISB Congresses and those of affiliate societies.

            In terms of activities, ISB has the organization of biennial international congresses, a provision of congress proceedings, the distribu-

tion of a quarterly ISB newsletter, the sponsorship of scientific meetings related to biomechanics as well as affiliation with the Journal of Biomechanics, the Journal of Applied Biomechanics, Clinical Biomechanics, and the Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology.

            (We discovered, by way of the survey we conducted this past summer, that members would like more journal offerings and electronic access.  As a result, we are in discussions with Elsevier regarding adding reduced price subscriptions to Gait & Posture and the Journal of Orthopedic Research.  Electronic access is already available for members who subscribe to the Journal of Biomechanics.  Later this year, that will be an option for subscribers to Clinical Biomechanics.)

            ISB’s major activity, though, is its biennial International Congress on Biomechanics—both its organization and the event itself.  Congresses provide the opportunity for participants to gain more knowledge about the current status of the field and to make valuable professional and personal contacts. 

            To promote international development of the field, congresses are held in different countries each time.  The 2005 congress will be held in Cleveland, Ohio, USA and promises, as usual, to be excellent. 

Speaking of the 2005 Congress, the organizers have included the top seven features identified by this summer’s member survey that would encourage people to attend:  a top notch scientific program, multiple opportunities to present research, reasonable cost, an accessible location, an August date, numerous networking opportunities, and excellent Keynote speakers.  Be sure to read what else the conference organizers have to say about ISB Congress 2005 in this newsletter.

            The ISB also supports other scientific meetings related to biomechanics by serving as the event’s sponsor.  In this capacity, the ISB helps with the dissemination of information and promotion, encourages members to participate, and, upon request, will assist with the planning and organization of the event.

            Additionally, the ISB supports the internet electronic discussion forum BIOMCH-L and lecture tours for economically developing countries.  See Jill McNitt-Gray’s note about initiatives for economically developing countries in this newsletter.

            And ISB knows how to give kudos.  At its congresses, the Society presents a number of awards for excellence including the Muybridge Award (the Society’s highest honor for outstanding contributions to biomechanics), the Wartenweiler Memorial Lectureship (named after ISB’s first president), and the Young Investigator and the Clinical Biomechanics Awards for the best papers presented competitively.

            As for scholarship, the ISB promotes it through the educational programs held at the congresses, its student Travel Grants (which enables a biomechanics student to travel to another continent to further a research project), and a range of student Grants-in-Aid for Dissertation Research and for ISB Congress attendance.  (Please note that the deadline for student grants is coming up in January.  Details are in this newsletter and on the Web site.)

            Now that you know everything you ever wanted to know about ISB, but were afraid to ask--I leave you with one more bit of information.  John Challis, ISB’s archivist, has a great article about what the ISB archives include and what types of things he would like members to submit.

I wish you all the best in the coming year. 



Until next time…  Mary Rodgers


Update on the nomination for President-Elect

and Council members - 2005


I am pleased to announce that the 2005 candidates for President–Elect of ISB are Dr. Walter Herzog and Dr. Julie Steele.  Watch for their profiles to appear on the ISB website in a few weeks time.  Nominations have been received and a slate is being prepared for the selection of members of the Executive Council.  Of note is that also four students have been nominated and will be included in the slate. All will be posted on the ISB website so check for their appearance.  Elections will be conducted electronically this year, which makes it particularly important that we can reach you by e-mail. 


Affiliated Societies


The ISB society is interested in working with biomechanics societies worldwide to promote and stimulate international collaboration between national and international biomechanics societies. Societies that are affiliated with ISB have formalized communication with ISB so that we can better work together to support biomechanics worldwide. Biomechanics societies currently affiliated with the ISB include Romania, Poland, China, Czech, Slovak, Bulgaria, USA, Canada, Japan, Britain, France, Korea, Australia and New Zealand. Affiliation Applications have been received from the International Society of Biomechanics in Sports and the Brazilian Society of Biomechanics. The Executive Council will vote to recommend their application for consideration by the General Assembly at the ISB 2005 meeting in Cleveland.

Economically Developing Countries


Promotion of Biomechanics

ISB is interested in stimulating biomechanics related research and promoting international collaboration in economically developing countries. ISB would like to invite all ISB Affiliated Societies in economically developing countries to submit a two page proposal outlining their current needs and ways ISB can facilitate their efforts related to biomechanics related education, research, and communication. This may include support for education and training of students, biomechanics related research, technical training, or travel of speakers to regional or national conferences economically developing countries.


Congress Travel Awards for the ISB 2005 Meeting
Members of Affiliated Societies in Economically Developing Countries are encouraged to apply for


travel grants associated with attendance at the ISB 2005 Meeting in Cleveland, OH, USA. Application forms are available at Applications are to be received by January 15, 2005. Notification to applicants will be by March 12, 2005. Recipients will submit a brief report to the committee which will be published in the Newsletter.


Liaisons with Economically Developing Countries
If you are interested in assisting the ISB Executive Committee in undertaking actions approved by the ISB council by serving as a liaison and facilitating communication between ISB and an Affiliated Society, please contact Jill McNitt-Gray at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

Jill L. McNitt-Gray, Ph.D.

Call for Abstracts: 

XXth ISB Congress and 29th ASB Conference



Dear Colleagues,


A combined team from Case Western Reserve University, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland State University and Lutheran is organizing the next combined ISB and ASB congress.  The meeting will begin on July 31st with four tutorials.


From August 1st through to August 5th, the focus will be on parallel sessions that span the field of biomechanics.  Topics that will be covered include:



  • Sport

  • Locomotion

  • Muscle/Motor Control

  • Physical Therapy/Rehabilitation

  • Orthopaedics and Joint mechanics

  • Soft Tissue Biomechanics

  • Bone Mechanics

  • Modeling / Musculo-Skeletal Dynamics

  • Spaceflight biomechanics


  • Tissue and Cellular Engineering

  • Bio-robotics

  • Anthropology

  • Neural Prostheses

  • Cardiovascular and Biofluid Mechanics

  • Forensic biomechanics,

  • Imaging in biomechanics

  • Plant, animal and insect biomechanics


In addition to podium and poster presentations, there will also be an evening “Pressure Measurement Workshop” offered by Novel Gmbh.


The official language of the Congress will be English.  Detailed information relating to the Congress is given at  In particular, please note that January 31, 2005 is the deadline for the submission of abstracts.  Formatting instructions are given at:


Once delegates have spent an entire day discussing the latest findings in the field, they need to relax!  For this reason, considerable attention is being given to creating a social program to facilitate interactions between scientists from all over the world.  The world-renowned New York Yankee baseball team will be in Cleveland from August 2nd – 4th; there will be optional mid-week excursions to Niagara Falls and other areas around Cleveland; and exciting social events each evening of the week.  The final banquet will be held at the Rock ’n Roll Hall of Fame.


Looking forward to seeing you in Cleveland!!



Please do not hesitate to contact us for any relevant information:

Tel: (216) 445-9343

Fax: (216) 444-9198

E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.



Brian L. Davis, Ph.D

Tutorials at the ISB Conference in Cleveland 2005



The ISB has a long tradition of offering excellent tutorials in a variety of different areas. These tutorials are selected based on input from the membership and suggestions from the ISB executive members and the organizing committee.


At the ISB in Cleveland, it is planned to have once again a series of outstanding tutorials.

Four tutorials are scheduled for Sunday July 31st, two running in parallel in the morning and two running in parallel in the afternoon, each lasting approximately two hours.


The following topics and speakers have been identified:


  1. Soft Tissue Mechanics by Jeff Weiss

  2. Bone and Joint Mechanics by Rik Huiskes

  3. 3-D Analysis of Movement by Richard Baker

  4. Motor Control by Mark Latash


Please mark your calendars and plan to arrive early to catch one or two of these tutorials given by some of the best researchers in the respective areas.


Walter Herzog

Tutorial Organizer for the ISB

Symposium on Footwear Biomechanics

ISB Conference in Cleveland 2005



The 7th Symposium on Footwear Biomechanics will be held in Cleveland, Ohio from July 27-29, 2005 at Case Western Reserve University.  The meeting will start out with an opening reception Wednesday evening, with two days of meetings culminating with a banquet on Friday at the Glidden House.  Keynote speakers will include Benno M. Nigg, professor of biomechanics at the University of Calgary, and Dr. Martyn R. Shorten, President of BioMechanica, LLC, who will provide perspectives on footwear research in the past, at present, and in the future.


Papers are invited involving all aspects of footwear biomechanics.  Abstract submissions will be in .pdf form and due January 31, 2005, with notification by March 1, 2005.  Specific information regarding format and details for submission and conference registration will be available soon from the ISB Technical Group on Footwear web site at Research Awards will once again be provided in three categories – for basic research, applied research, and a student award.


In addition, at the closing banquet Nike will be announcing the winner of a special $25,000 research prize that they are sponsoring this year.  The purpose of the award is to encourage research on the role of athletic footwear in the prevention of chronic sport injuries. Full papers will be submitted in the Spring to Nike and finalists will be reviewed by a scientific panel of experts for selection of the award winner.  Details are in this newsletter and will also be posted on the footwear web site. Research sponsored by Nike will not be eligible for this award.


Further information can be obtained via email from Keith R. Williams, chairperson of the footwear group (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.), or Joe Hamill, meeting coordinator (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.).

Keith Williams

Footwear Group

Symposium on Computer Simulation in Biomechanics

ISB Conference in Cleveland 2005




Case Western Reserve University, (probably in. Dively building)

Accommodation will be at CWRU student residences, one block from the meeting. Keynote speakers will be at the Glidden house. We plan to include the accommodation with the registration. If people want to stay in a hotel instead, they will not get a discounted registration, so we encourage everybody to be together.


PROGRAM includes Keynote Lectures, oral presentations and computer demonstrations.

The meeting will START with a reception on the evening of July 28 (Thursday), and will END with a banquet on Saturday evening.



Robert F. Kirsch (meeting chair)

Musa Audu (scientific program)

Ed Chadwick (technical program)

Ton van den Bogert (ISB/TGCS liaison)

Elizabeth Hardin (accommodation)


Frederico Casalo

Computer Simulation Group




Editor’s Notes and Requests


Recent research has shown that mental work will help to keep your brain young and fit. Now that the season’s holydays are just around the corner you may have a couple of hours, where you need some challenges for your brain! I am sure that Lutz Bauer’s trampoline puzzle can keep you busy for a while.

If you manage to find a solution be sure to send it to the editor before the 15 of February 2005. There is no prize to win in this competition but we can promise  that your name and solution will appear in the next Newsletter, so you will reach a dedicated audience. 

If you get inspired and create your own puzzle, do not hesitate to let the editor know.



In the next Newsletter you can look forward to a description of the two new societies requesting affiliation, the International Society of Biomechanics in Sports and the Brazilian Society of Biomechanics.

You will also have an update from the busy organizers of ISB 2005 in Cleveland. And last but not the least interesting; the first electronic election of ISB council member will have taken place. We will keep you updated on this event as well.

General deadline for the Spring Newsletter is the first of March 2005. Please send your contribution in electronic form in any form of English to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

Karen Søgaard

Biomechanics and Music


The Closing Banquet for the 2005 combined ISB/ASB Congress will be held at Cleveland’s popular “Rock ‘n Roll Hall of Fame”.  For those of you who are wondering if there will be any live performances at this event  - stay “tuned”  - we are hoping for some guest appearances of people who - with the help of some make up and hair styling - bear uncanny resemblances to famous musicians! 


Dick Nelson, Ph.D.

President, ISB

1976 – 1981

Mark Grabiner, Ph.D.

President, ASB

1997 – 1998

Kit Vaughan, Ph.D.

President, ISB

1999 – 2001

Stu McGill, Ph.D.

President, CSB

1999 - 2000





Willie Nelson

1993, Country Music Hall of Fame

Frank Zappa

1995, Rock’n Roll

Hall of Fame

Elton John

1994, Rock’n Roll

Hall of Fame

Kenny Rodgers

1979, Hollywood

Walk of Fame


Brian L. Davis, Ph.D.

Notes from the Archives


I am often asked the same questions about the archives of the ISB.  I hope to address these questions in the following.


Where and what is the archive?

Our collection is held in the Penn State University Archives, which are in the Paterno Library on campus.  This facility is climate controlled to ensure all stored materials are maximally preserved.  It is located about 400 meters from the Biomechanics Laboratory.


The library controls access to the materials, so that no paperwork leaves the archive.


The library is named for Joe and Sue Paterno to honor their hard work and leadership in the Campaign for the Library, which raised $13.75 million in private gifts to build the library.  Joe Paterno, for those of you who do not know, is the football coach at Penn State.


Along with the constitution, and its revisions, the archive contains minutes of executive council meetings, financial records, meeting proceedings, details of nominees and awardees for society awards, copies of correspondence, and other materials.


What do I try to do with the archive?

Ensure the archive contains all the information that the society wants to preserve.  This, of course, includes giving people a gentle nudge when this information is not forthcoming.


Go through the process of ensuring all of the records are color coded (e.g., financial records are in green folders; presidential correspondence are in red, etc.), so that identification of specific records is easier. On receipt of information it is categorized, labeled, cataloged, and then sent on to the library for entry into the archive.


Progressively work through the archive, noting gaps and omissions, and then work at trying to fill these gaps and omissions.


Move to having more of the information stored electronically (e.g., important documents stored in hard copy as well as PDF files).


Provide information, as requested, from the archive to officers of the society.


How can our membership help?

Contact me if you have some paperwork you think could be added to the archive.


At the moment we do not have a complete set of Newsletters.  The gaps are in the years prior to 1990.  Anybody who is looking to recover some shelf space and would like to donate their Newsletters please let me know.


I will notify you of any other materials we would like to add as I become aware of them.


[If you have any materials you think should be in the archive, and you would consider donating them to the archive please contact John Challis (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.).]



John Challis




The Nike Award for Athletic Footwear Research




Nike will sponsor a prize of UD$25,000 on a biennial basis to encourage research on athletic footwear.  The topic for this year competition will be the role of athletic footwear in the prevention of chronic sport injuries.  The prize will be granted for the first time at the meeting of the ISB Footwear Biomechanics Technical Group to be held July 17-19, 2005 at Case Western University, Cleveland, Ohio in conjunction with the 2005 ISB congress.


The prize will be awarded competitively on the scientific merit of the work*.  A panel of experts from the field will be assembled to determine the winner of the award. Full papers containing original material, not previously submitted for publication, must be received at the following address no later than June 1, 2005:


Mario A. Lafortune

Nike Sport Research Laboratory

1 Bowerman Drive

Beaverton, OR 97005





*Note that research sponsored by Nike will not be eligible for this award.


Preparation of the manuscript

Language:     Manuscript must be written in English.


Format:         Manuscript must follow a typical scientific publication format such as Journal of Biomechanics. All references must be collected in a separate section at the end of the manuscript.


Length:         Manuscript must not exceed 15 typewritten pages of text and should not to exceed 25 pages including figures and tables.


Page Size:      US letter size (8.5” X 11”) or European A4 size.  All margins (Top, Bottom, Left and Right) must be 1 inch (2.5 cm).


Line Spacing: 1.5


Font:             Times New Roman size 10.


General Information

The winner of the Nike Award for Athletic Footwear Research will be announced at the ISB Footwear Biomechanics Technical Group meeting to be held at Case Western University, Cleveland, Ohio.  The winner of the award will be notified prior to June 25,2005 and will be handed a check to the amount of UD$25,000**at the meeting closing banquet.  Nike will pay the registration, transportation (economy class) and accommodation costs for the winner to attend the meeting.  These costs will be reimbursed if the winner has already made arrangements to attend the meeting.  In the event that the winner cannot attend the meeting, Nike will not cover these costs.


**The recipient of the prize will be responsible for all taxes payable on the award both in the US and in his/her country of residence.



Roadmap for dealing with awards at combined

ISB/ASB Congresses




Brian L. Davis

 ISB Student Grant Update 2005



International Society of Biomechanics (ISB)

Student Grant Guidelines 2005



Student members of ISB are eligible for the following three  grants. A number of competitive grants will be awarded each year. All grant amounts are shown in US dollars.



1) The Matching Dissertation Grant Program:

There will be several competitive grants of $2000 made for doctoral dissertation research. A condition is that the applicant will have a commitment from her/his institution or another source to provide a further matching $2000. This program is applicable to those who are doctoral candidates and are seeking assistance with costs of their dissertation research.  Applications should include the following:


a)      a three page summary which includes the purpose, hypotheses, reference to key related literature, study design, methods, timetable for the measurements and budget;

b)      a CV of the applicant:  2‑3 pages in length (including list of publications, passport picture, current grade point average, results of any standardized tests that the applicant has taken (i.e. GRE));

c)      a document from her/his institution or other source which ensures provision of the matching $2000;

d)      a one page recommendation from the dissertation advisor who must also be an ISB member at the time of application.


Applications are to be received by January  15, 2005 both by email and airmail (including the signatures). Notification to applicants will be by March 12, 2005. Recipients will present results at the next ISB Congress in 2005 or 2007 and acknowledge ISB support in any publications. A report to the council will include accounting of how funds were spent. Recipients will be encouraged to publish their work in one of the ISB-affiliated journals.



2)  The International Travel Grant Program:

In order to allow student members to travel abroad to experience science in other cultures, we will offer several grants of $2000 for travel related to biomechanics research. A report on the accomplishments during the trip will be expected by the committee. Applications should include:


a)      a three page proposal which includes the purpose of the visit, timetable, activities to be involved in, the total budget for the visit (including other financial assistance, etc.);

b)      a CV of the applicant: 2‑3 pages in length (including list of publications, passport picture, current grade point average, results of any standardized tests that the applicant has taken (i.e. GRE));

c)      a document from the host institution verifying support for the visit;

d)      a recommendation letter of support for the travel from the applicant's supervisor who must also be an ISB member at the time of application.

Applications are to be received by January  15, 2005 both by email and airmail (including the signatures). Notification to applicants will be by March 12, 2005. Recipients will submit a brief report to the committee, which will be published in the Newsletter.



3)  The Congress Travel Grant Program:

This grant is offered only in the years of an ISB Congress, therefore, it will be offered in 2005 to help reduce the travel expenses to attend the XXth ISB Congress in Cleveland, USA, ISB Congresses provide a wonderful opportunity for exchange of information and for meeting other scientists who can be influential in the development of new directions.  By virtue of the need to move the congresses between different continents, it is often very difficult for students to afford to travel to the Congresses or to pay the registration fee if they can travel.  However, we will offer several travel grants of up to $1000 to student members who will be presenting their research results at the 2005 ISB Congress in Cleveland, USA. Applications should include the following:


a)         a proposal which should have a maximum length of 3 pages including a copy of  the submitted abstract and, the total budget for the travel;

b)        a CV of the applicant: 2‑3 pages in length (include list of publications, passport picture, current grade point average, results of any standardized tests that the applicant has taken (i.e. GRE));

c)         a one page recommendation from the supervisor who must also be an ISB member at the          time of application.


Recipients will submit a brief report to the committee, which will be published in the Newsletter. Applications are to be received by January  15, 2005 both by email and airmail (including the signatures). Notification to applicants will be by March 12, 2005.


Final notes:

·         Please be aware that applications can only be accepted from FINANCIAL member applicants and supervisors.

·         Please provide the ISB membership number in your application. It can be obtained from the ISB website or from Graeme Wood under: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

·         ISB student grants do not cover indirect costs.

·         ISB student grants are intended for students only, not post-docs.

·         First time applicants are preferred, but others can be considered if the funds allow.

·         The evaluation committee is authorized to limit the number of applications per institution.


Grant applications should be mailed (email and airmail) to:          


Dr. A. Stacoff

Laboratory for Biomechanics

ETH Hönggerberg, HCI E 365.1

8093 Zürich


Tel: ++41 1 633 62 18

Fax: ++41 1 633 11 24

Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


Please use the application form from the webpage:




International Society of Biomechanics

Matching Dissertation Grant Report



Justin Keogh

School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science

Griffith University Gold Coast



I sincerely thank the International Society of Biomechanics, and in particular the Awards Committee for awarding me an ISB Matching Dissertation Grant for 2002. This grant was instrumental in allowing me to finish my PhD data collection and present a portion of these findings at the XIX International Society of Biomechanics Congress in Dunedin during July 2003.


My doctoral research had two primary aims:

1.       To examine the effects of the normal ageing process on postural and force tremor.

2.       To determine the effectiveness of two forms of resistance training in reducing postural and force tremor in elderly adults, and if such an effect was found, to gain some insight into the mechanisms underlying such a change.


Postural tremor is defined as the involuntary, approximately rhythmic and roughly sinusoidal motion of a limb segment in space (Elble & Koller, 1990), while force tremor can be described as the involuntary oscillations in force output that occur during any muscular contraction (Loscher & Gallasch, 1993).  While these (and other) forms of physiological tremor are observed across the lifespan, the amplitude of these oscillations may be greater in elderly than young adults in both postural (Birmingham, Wharrad, & Williams, 1985; Loscher & Gallasch, 1993) and isometric force tasks (Burnett, Laidlaw, & Enoka, 2000; Cole, 1991; Laidlaw, Bilodeau, & Enoka, 2000).  As a consequence of their increased tremor, the elderly may have increased difficulty in performing fine, dexterous movements involving the fingers such as writing, lifting light objects and using utensils (Hackel, Wolfe, Bang, & Canfield, 1992).  Therefore the development of inexpensive, non-invasive intervention programs that can reduce tremor amplitude are warranted.  As both postural

and force tremor are influenced by a number of neural (coordinative) processes (Laidlaw et al., 2000; Morrison & Keogh, 2001; Morrison & Newell, 2000), it was hypothesized that resistance training could be used to reduce both types of tremor as a result of the neuromuscular adaptations known to result from this form of training (Behm, 1995; Burnett et al., 2000; Carroll, Riek, & Carson, 2001; Laidlaw et al., 2000).


For the postural tremor tasks, young and elderly adults were assessed performing four unilateral postural pointing tasks.  These tasks consisted of all combinations of limb preference (preferred and non-preferred) and visual feedback (normal vision - NV and augmented visual feedback - AV).  The AV feedback was provided by the projection of a laser emission (originating from a laser pointer attached to the index finger) onto a concentric circle target 5.5 m away.  Postural tremor from the index finger, hand, forearm and upper arm, as well as the surface EMG activity of the extensor digitorum (ED) and flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) muscles were recorded.  Force tremor was assessed in tri-digit finger-pinch tasks involving the thumb, index and middle fingers.  The finger-pinch tasks were performed with all combinations of limb (preferred and non-preferred), mean force (20% and 40% MVC) and target shape (constant and sinusoidal).  During these tasks, the individual digit forces and surface EMG activity of the flexor pollicus brevis (FPB) and FDS muscles were recorded. 


The elderly adults also participated in a resistance-training program.  Each elderly adult was assigned into one of three groups: 1) strength-training; 2) coordination-training; or 3) control group.  Both training groups performed unilateral training involving dumbbell bicep curls, wrist curls and wrist extensions, two times per week for a period of six weeks.  The strength-training group performed three sets of 8-10 repetitions for each exercise in a standard manner.  The coordination-training group (utilising a lighter load) performed the same exercises, with the goal being to match their joint angle to a quasi-random angular trajectory (displayed in real-time) on a computer screen.  Thus, subjects in the coordination-training group had to continually adjust their mode of contraction (concentric vs eccentric) and joint angular velocity in order to match the required angular trajectory. 


The results of these studies reveal many new features about the control of postural and force tremor.  Postural tremor amplitude was greater in elderly than young adults, in the non-preferred than preferred limb and in the AV than NV conditions.  Such increases were typically a result of an amplification of the 8-12 Hz (neurogenic) tremor peak, with little change evident for the 2-4 Hz peak.  In conjunction with the increased levels of ED and FDS muscle activity and limb stiffness as well as lower levels of intra-limb coupling, these increases in postural tremor appear to be largely mediated through modulation of neural processes.  The strength and coordination training programs both proved successful in reducing postural tremor in the elderly adults, with this reduction found in both the trained and untrained limb and in the NV and AV tasks.  In accordance with our hypotheses, these decreases in postural tremor amplitude were most pronounced in the 8-12 Hz bandwidth and were associated with reductions in ED and FDS muscle activity and upper limb stiffness as well as greater intra-limb coupling.


Force tremor was quantified in absolute and relative (% MVC) terms.  Absolute force tremor was greater in elderly than young adults, in the preferred than non-preferred limb, at high than low forces and in the sinusoidal than constant force tasks.  Such increases in force tremor resulted from an amplification of both low (0-2 Hz) and high (5-10 Hz) frequency processes and were also often associated with changes in the coupling of the digit forces and in the coupling between the digit forces and activity of the FPB and FDS muscles.  The strength and coordination training programs both proved successful in reducing force tremor in the trained and untrained limb, with the magnitude of this reduction not significantly influenced by force output or target shape.  Overall, these reductions in force tremor were associated with an attenuation of power for the dominant low frequency peak and an increase in the frequency of the high frequency peak.


Collectively, the results from these studies indicate that postural and force tremor are oscillatory outputs that originate from a variety of oscillations within the nervous system.  Thus, modulation of any of these processes can affect the time- and frequency-domain characteristics of these signals.  The results for the resistance-training programs were extremely positive, revealing that even short-term training can reduce both forms of tremor in multiple degree of freedom pointing and finger-pinch tasks, and that this training can reduce tremor in the trained and untrained limb.  Such a cross-education for postural or force tremor has not been shown previously.  Thus, resistance-training appears to be an effective tool for not only improving mobility and stability in elderly adults, but also in improving precision upper limb performance.


Presently, I am completing the write-up of my PhD, which I plan to submit in mid-late 2004.  These findings will also be submitted for journal review in the near future.





Behm, D. G. (1995). Neuromuscular implications and applications of resistance training. J. Str. Cond. Res., 9(4), 264-274.

Birmingham, A. T., Wharrad, H. J., & Williams, E. J. (1985). The variation of finger tremor with age in man. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 48, 788-798.

Burnett, R. A., Laidlaw, D. H., & Enoka, R. M. (2000). Coactivation of the antagonist muscle does not covary with steadiness in old adults. J. Appl. Physiol., 89, 61-71.

Carroll, T. J., Riek, S., & Carson, R. G. (2001). Neural adaptations to resistance training. Sports Med., 31(12), 829-840.

Cole, K. J. (1991). Grasp force control in older adults. J. Mot. Behav., 23(4), 251-258.

Elble, R. J., & Koller, W. C. (1990). The definition and classification of tremor. In R. J. Elble & W. C. Koller (Eds.), Tremor. Baltimore: John Hopkins.

Hackel, M. E., Wolfe, G. A., Bang, S. M., & Canfield, J. S. (1992). Changes in hand function in the aging adult as determined by Jebsen Test of Hand Function. Phys. Ther., 72, 373-377.

Laidlaw, D. H., Bilodeau, M., & Enoka, R. M. (2000). Steadiness is reduced and motor unit discharge is more variable in old adults. Muscle Nerve, 23, 600-612.

Loscher, W. N., & Gallasch, E. (1993). Myoelectric signs of muscle fatigue and physiological tremor from childhood to seniority. In G. E. Stelmach & V. Homberg (Eds.), Sensorimotor Impairment in the Elderly (pp. 103-127). Dordecht: Kluwer Academic.

Morrison, S., & Keogh, J. (2001). Changes in the dynamics of tremor during goal-directed pointing. Human Movement Science, 20, 675-693.

Morrison, S., & Newell, K. M. (2000). Limb stiffness and postural tremor in the arm. Motor Control, 4, 293-315.

Announcement of the

Winner of the Delsys Contest 2004



Dear ISB readers!


We are very pleased to announce the winner of the Delsys Contest 2004 "Promoting Innovation in Electromyography".

The Delsys Contest was established in 2003 to commemorate the 10-year anniversary of Delsys, Inc., which has been proudly serving the needs of Electromyographers worldwide. Delsys is committed to fostering innovative applications in Electromyography and to providing novel EMG solutions.


The winning proposal was selected from a pool of 49 applicants for its innovativeness and creativity, by a committee consisting of five experts in the field of Electromyography.


The Contest winner will receive a complete Bagnoli-4 EMG system, EMGworks, and Dell Desktop Computer, a total value of $ 9,000.


The WINNER of the Delsys Contest is:


Professor Dr. F.C.T van der Helm

Delft University of Technology

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

Delft, The Netherlands

“Estimation of Proprioceptive Reflex Gains using Surface EMG”


Honorable mention is given to two other proposals, which captured the Contest's spirit of Innovation:


Tobias Gerdin

P&I Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology

“Software Instrument Interfaced using Surface Electromyography”


Dr. William A. Sands

United States Olympic Committee

“EMG Helps Olympic Gymnastics Coaches Select Appropriate Lead-Up Drills and Skills for Still Rings”


Stay Tuned for next year

If you did not get a chance to participate this year, there will be a Delsys Contest 2005. The details of the contest will be announced June 10th and the deadline will be Oct 12th.


For complete information, please visit




Tiziana DeLuca

Sales and Marketing Department

Delsys Inc.


This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.







W. Lutz Bauer

University of Bremen





The Fifth Australasian Biomechanics Conference. 

Dates: December  9-10, 2004

Venue: The University of New South Wales, Kensington.

Information: E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view





Movement Analysis 2005 – Building Bridges

Dates: February 3-5, 2005

Venue: Auckland, New Zealand

Informantion: See website:





The 13th International Congress on Physical Education & Sport

Dates: May 20-22, 2005

Venue: Komotini, Greece

Information: See website:





ISPGR XVII International Society for Postural

and Gait Research

Dates: May 29 – June 2

Venue:Marseille, France.


E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

See website:








NASPSPA 2005 Conference

Dates: June 9-11, 2005

Venue: St. Pete's Beach in Florida


E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Conference Program Chair:

See website:





The 9th World Multi-

Conference on Systemics,

Cybernetics and Informatics

Dates: July 10-13, 2005

Venue: Orlando, Florida, USA

Information: See web-site:






International Society of Biomechanics Congress

Dates: August 1-5, 2005

Venue: Cleveland, Ohio, USA 


E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

See website:





ISSP 11th World Congress of Sport Psychology

Dates: August 15 – 19, 2005

Venue: Sydney , Australia


See website:




APCST 2005

Asia-Pacific Congress on Sports Technology -

Dates: September 12-14, 2005

Venue: Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan


E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

See website:






First International Conference on Mechanics of Biomaterials & Tissues

Dates: December 11-14, 2005

Venue: Waikoloa, Hawai’I, USA

Information: See web-site:


NASPSPA 2006 Conference

For this conference, we will join with the American College of Sports Medicine.

Dates: June 1-3, 2006

Venue: Denver, Colorado.


5th World Congress of


Dates: 29 July – 4 August, 2006.

Venue: Munich, Germany


Email: Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil.

Dieter Liepsch, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

See website:






AnyBody simulates the mechanics of the human body. It computes forces in individual muscles, joint forces, elastic energy in tendons, antagonistic muscle actions, and many other useful properties of the working human body.

AnyBody can handle models with hundreds of muscles on ordinary personal computers. This ability alone makes AnyBody unique.

AnyBody models are stored in clear text in the powerful body modelling language AnyScriptTM. This lets you import, modify, and extend a comprehensive public domain library of models with more than 500 muscle units developed by several research groups. The system also lets you develop your own models of cats, fish, horses, or dinosaurs.

AnyBody models not just the body, but also the objects it interfaces to; the seat and the crank mechanism of a bicycle, the backrest and foot support of a chair, the steering wheel and gearshift of a car. With AnyBody, you can investigate the ergonomic consequences of design parameters in detail.

You can call AnyBody from an optimization routine such as Matlab and use the system to do ergonomic optimization or identify unknown movement patterns; you are actually able to predict how your dinosaur model will jump.

AnyBody is self-contained and does not require any other software. Free demo licenses are available. Demo licenses have full functionality but a limited duration. For more information, please visit or email This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

AnyBody Technology A/S   •   Niels Jernes Vej  10  •    DK-9220 Aalborg East   •   Denmark

Tel: +45 9635 4286   •   Fax: +45 9635 4599

Membership News and Important Notice


By the time your read this message you should have received your 2005 Membership renewal notice by e-mail. If not, then it will be because we don’t have your current e-mail address recorded in the on-line database ( Please help us by keeping your contact details up-to-date. If you have difficulties with on-line access, then contact the Treasurer (contact details on front cover).



New Members to ISB



Rebecca Zifchock

Biomechanics and Movement Science

The University of Delaware

12 Myers Road

Newark, DE 19713

United States of America


Miss Roshanak Mousavi

Biomedical Engineering

Queen Mary

85 The Panoramic

152 Grosvenour Rd

London,  SW1V 3JL

United Kingdom


Dr. Jin Luo

School of Sport Science and Health

Dublin City University

VB103A Postgraduate Residence Dublin City University

Dublin,  Dublin 9



Mr. Matthew Chowaniec

Biomedical Engineering

Worcester Polytechnic Institute

43 Wachusett St. Apartment 2

Worcester, MA 1609

United States of America


Mr. Mark Tucker

School of Engineering

University of Bradford

4 Springfields Otley Road

Skipton, North Yorkshire BD23 1HF

United Kingdom


Mr. Andrew Greene

Exercise and Sports Science

University of Sydney, Australia

Unit 5 16-18 The Crescent Berala

Sydney, New South Wales 2141



Ms. Belle Parris

963 W. Ave J

Lancaster, CA 93534

United States of America


Mr. Heng-Ju Lee

Human Physiology

University of Oregon

1240 University of Oregon

Eugene, Oregon 97403-1240

United States of America




Mr. David Bazett-Jones

Biomechancis Laboratory

Ball State University

2217 W Bethel Ave #121

Muncie, IN 47304

United States of America


Dr. Rene' Ferdinands

Physics & Electronic Engineering

University of Waikato

Private Bag 3105

Hamilton,  2002

New Zealand


Mr. Neil Cronin

Brunel University

71 Maple Way

Burnham-On-Crouch, Essex CM0 8DN

United Kingdom


Ms. Karen Mickle

Department of Biomedical Science

University of Wollongong

Northfields Ave

Wollongong, NSW 2500



Mr. Bradley Bowser

Health, Physical Education and Recreation

Utah State University

1101 East Stadium Dr

Logan, UT 84341

United States of America


Ms. Alyssa George

Biomedical Engineering

Case Western Reserve University

11443 Juniper Dr.
Rm 312

Cleveland, Ohio 43616

United States of America


Mr. Brad Mitchell

Health, Physical Education and Recr.

Utah State University

500 South 98 East

Providence, Utah 84332

United States of America


Mr. Carl Johnson

Human Movement Sciences

University of Wisconsin Milwaukee

3003 N. 52nd St

Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53210

United States of America




Mr. David Wallace


Oregon State University

2607 nw roanoke st

portland, or 97210

United States of America


Ms. Kimberly Balogh

Mechanical Engineering

Northern Arizona University

901 S. O'Leary St. Apt. #111

Flagstaff, Arizona 86001

United States of America


Ms. Kimberly Reed


Hanger Prosthetics & Orthotics, Inc.

39163 Gardenside Drive

Willoughby, OHIO 44094

United States of America


Miss Jill Schmidt

Mechanical Engineering

University of Wisconsin - Madison

1602 Fordem Ave #108

Madison, WI 53704

United States of America


 Matthew Fiedler

801 S 45th St

Omaha, NE 68106

United States of America


Mr. Steven Lester

Faculty of Applied Health Science

Brock University

78 Welland St. N #301

Thorold, ON L2V 2C1



Mr. Martijn Niessen

Faculty of Human Movement Sciences

Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam

Van der Boechorsstraat 9

Amsterdam,  1081 BT