International Society of Biomechanics
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The primary purpose of the International Society of Biomechanics (ISB) is to promote and stimulate the development of biomechanics at the international level. ISB recognizes that numerous national and regional societies of biomechanics or related topics have emerged in various parts of the world. In some countries several biomechanics societies exist which represent sub disciplinary interests. Future enhancement of the quality and scope of biomechanics research depends upon mutual co-operation and support of all of these groups. For these reasons, ISB has an Affiliate Society Membership code, explained more fully in the ISB's code of practice for affiliate societies.

Webmaster

A/Prof Thor Besier

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Hae-Dong Lee, PhD

Chair & Professor, Department of Physical Education

Department of Physical Education

Yonsei University

50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu

Seoul, 120-749, South Korea

Tel: +82 2 2123 6188

Fax: +82 2 2123 8648

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Robert Herbert, PhD

Professor, Musculoskeletal Division

NHMRC Senior Research Fellow

The George Institute for Global Health

Level 7, 341 George St., Sydney NSW 2000, Australia

Tel: +61 2 9657 0379

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Thomas S. Buchanan, PhD

Director, Delaware Rehabilitation Institute

Laird Professor of Mechanical Engineering

Professor of Biomedical Engineering

Professor of Biomechanics & Movement Science

126 Spencer Laboratory

University of Delaware

Newark, DE 19716, USA

Tel: +1 302 831 2410

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Taija Finni, Ph.D.

Professor of Kinesiology

Neuromuscular Research Center

Department of Biology of Physical Activity

University of Jyväskylä

PO Box 35 (VIV 227)

FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä

Finland

Tel: +358 14 260 2051

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Antonia Zaferiou (Student Representative)

University of Southern California

Department of Kinesiology

3560 Watt Way, PED 107

University of Southern California

Los Angeles, CA 90089-0652, USA

Tel: +1 213 740 7903

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Recommended Reads

Kindly contributed by the

International Society of Biomechanics Fellows

 

Professor Maarten Bobbert

The following commentary addresses a problem that is pervading the field of human movement science and (clinical) biomechanics:

Chaos in the Brickyard (Forscher, 1963)

http://science.sciencemag.org/content/142/3590/339.1

Two classic papers by Herbert Hatze, whom I consider to be the founding father of modern simulation and optimization studies with musculoskeletal models.  Herbert Hatze was way ahead of his time.

Myocybernetic control model of skeletal-muscle (Hatze, 1977)

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00337268

A comprehensive model for human motion simulation and its application to the take-off phase of the long jump (Hatze, 1981)

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0021929081900191?via%3Dihub

A paper by Gerrit Jan van Ingen Schenau and Peter Cavanagh, clearly presenting a sound way to calculate power and work in human motion.

Power equations in endurance sports (van Ingen Schenau and Cavanagh, 1990)

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2211732

 

Professor Ton van den Bogert

I once told my students that the most important paper in biomechanics is about a jumping lamp.  This 1988 paper was an important proof of concept for trajectory optimization to predict human motion from models:

Spacetime Constraints (Witkin and Kass, 1988)

http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=378507

Winter's mechanical energy paper (1983) is still a very relevant trusted source of information.  This is the inspiration for modern prosthetic devices.  Winter showed that the knee mostly absorbs energy, so can be replaced by a controlled damper, and the ankle must generate a lot of energy so that is where a motor can be helpful. 

Energy generation and absorption at the ankle and knee during fast, natural and slow cadences (Winter, 1983)

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6839580

Grood and Suntay's introduction of the Joint Coordinate System.  Thanks to this work, we have a standard way to describe three-dimensional joint rotations.

A joint coordinate system for the clinical description of three-dimensional motions: application to the knee (Grood and Suntay, 1983)

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6865355

He, Levine and Loeb's 1991 paper on optimal feedback control of a cat hind limb is still an inspiring and unique connection between musculoskeletal dynamics and classical control theory.

Feedback gains for correcting small perturbations to standing posture (He, Levine and Loeb, 1991)

http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/73565/?reload=true

 

Professor Walter Herzog

In muscle mechanics, the classic manuscripts are a given: 

The sliding filament theory:

Structural changes in muscle during contraction (Huxley and Niedergerke, 1954)

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v173/n4412/abs/173971a0.html

The cross-bridge theory:

Muscle structure and theories of contraction (Butler and Katz, 1957), A. F. Huxley Chpt 6, pg 257-318 https://books.google.com/books?id=NPTPAAAAMAAJ&dq

Proposed mechanism of force generation in striated muscle (Huxley and Simmons, 1971)

https://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v233/n5321/abs/233533a0.html

The force length property of muscle:

The variation in isometric tension with sarcomere length in vertebrate muscle fibres (Gordon, Huxley and Julian, 1966)

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1113/jphysiol.1966.sp007909/abstract

The force-velocity relationship:

The heat of shortening and the dynamic constants of muscle (Hill, 1938)

http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/126/843/136

 

Professor Jill McNitt-Gray

Kinetics of Human Motion (Zatsiorsky, 2002)

https://books.google.com/books?id=wp3zt7oF8a0C

Kinematics of Human Motion (Zatsiorsky, 1998)

https://books.google.com/books/about/Kinematics_of_Human_Motion.html?id=Pql_xXdbrMcC

Biomechanics of Skeletal Muscle (Zatsiorsky and Prilutsky, 2012)

https://books.google.com/books?id=THXfHT8L5MEC

Biomechanics of sport: a research approach (Miller and Nelson, 1973)

https://www.abebooks.com/servlet/BookDetailsPL?bi=1425189981&searchurl=sortby%3D17%26an%3DMILLER%252C%2BDoris%2BI%2B%2526%2BNELSON%252C%2BRichard%2BC.

Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Movement, 4th Edition (Winter, 2009)

https://books.google.com/books?id=_bFHL08IWfwC

 

Professor Peter Milburn

Human mechanics: four monographs abridged (Goff, 1963)

http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=AD0600618

This contains abridged versions of four of the 'classic papers' of early biomechanics:

  1. Braune, C. W., & Fischer, O. (1889). *Über den Schwerpunkt des menschlichen Körpers: mit Rücksicht auf die Ausrüstung des deutschen Infanteristen*. S. Hirzel. (About the center of gravity of the human body: with regard to the equipment of the German infantryman)
  2. Fischer, O. (1906). Theoretical fundamentals for a mechanics of living bodies with special applications to man as well as to some processes of motion in machines. *BG Teubner, Berlin.*
  3. Amar, J., Butterworth, E. M., & Wright, G. E. (1920). *The Human Motor, Or,The Scientific Foundations of Labour and Industry: With 309 Illustrations and Numerous Tables*. G. Routledge & sons, Limited.
  4. Dempster, Wilfrid Taylor. "Space requirements of the seated operator: geometrical, kinematic, and mechanical aspects of the body, with special reference to the limbs." (1955).

More 'modern day' classics might include:

Direct linear transformation method for three-dimensional cinematography (Shapiro, 1978)

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10671315.1978.10615524

This was the first paper published on the direct linear transformation (DLT) method, the basis of 3D motion capture.  It takes the technique back to 'first principles' so students understand the theory behind the systems currently available. 

Mechanical stability of the in vivo lumbar spine: implications for injury and chronic low back pain (Cholewicki and McGill, 1996)

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0268003395000356

This presents a method to quantify the mechanical stability of the lumbar spine in vivo during various 3D dynamic tasks.

 

Professor Darren Stefanyshyn

The following are a series of papers showing early human locomotion inverse dynamics calculations with tremendous insight:

Forces and energy changes in the leg during walking (Elftman, 1939a)

http://ajplegacy.physiology.org/content/ajplegacy/125/2/339.full.pdf

The functions of muscles in locomotion (Elftman, 1939b)

http://ajplegacy.physiology.org/content/125/2/357

The work done by muscles in running (Elftman, 1940)

http://ajplegacy.physiology.org/content/129/3/672.long

A short but though provoking look at the role of elastic energy storage in running, jumping and flying:

Storage of elastic strain energy in muscle and other tissues (Alexander, 1977)

https://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v265/n5590/full/265114a0.html

An early review paper on gait energetics from a pioneer in the field:

Calculation and interpretation of mechanical energy of movement (Winter, 1976)

http://journals.lww.com/acsm-essr/Citation/1978/00060/CALCULATION_AMD_INTERPRETATION_OF_MECHAMICAL.6.aspx

 

Professor Ronald Zernicke

This paper highlights some of the diverse areas in which "biomechanics impacts society" and the research of five internationally famous biomechanists as the role models. This has proven useful to expose students at the University of Michigan to the breadth and impact of biomechanics, particularly in areas that not everyone associates with "traditional" biomechanics. It may also be useful for other students, around the world, to learn of the diversity of biomechanics.

Impact of biomechanics research on society (Zernicke et al., 2012)

http://journals.humankinetics.com/doi/10.1123/krj.1.1.5

 

Complete List

Alexander, R. M. (1977) ‘Storage of Elastic Strain Energy in Muscles and Other Tissues’, Nature, 265, pp. 114–117. doi: 10.1038/265114a0

Butler, J. A. V. and Katz, B. (1957) Progress in biophysics and biophysical chemistry. UK: Pergamon Press, Ltd.

Cholewicki, J. and McGill, S. (1996) ‘Mechanical stability of the in viva lumbar spine: implications for injury and chronic low back pain’, Clinical Biomechanics, 11(1), pp. 1–15. doi: 10.1016/0268-0033(95)00035-6

Elftman, H. (1939a) ‘Forces and energy changes in the leg during walking’, American Journal of Physiology--Legacy Content, 125(2), pp. 339–356.

Elftman, H. (1939b) ‘The function of muscles in locomotion’, American Journal of Physiology--Legacy Content, 125(357–366), pp. 122–123.

Elftman, H. (1940) ‘The work done by muscles in running’, American Journal of Physiology--Legacy Content, 129(3), pp. 672–684.

Forscher, B. K. (1963) ‘Chaos in the Brickyard’, Science, 142(3590), p. 339. doi: 10.1126/science.142.3590.339

Goff, C. W. (1963) ‘Human mechanics. Four monographs abridged.’ Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 22(4).

Gordon, A. M., Huxley, A. F. and Julian, F. J. (1966) ‘The variation in isometric tension with sarcomere length in vertebrate muscle fibres.’, The Journal of Physiology, 184(1), pp. 170–192. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.1966.sp007909

Grood, E. S. and Suntay, W. J. (1983) ‘A joint coordinate system for the clinical description of three-dimensional motions: application to the knee’, J Biomech Eng, 105(2), pp. 136–144. doi: 10.1115/1.3138397

Hatze, H. (1977) ‘A myocybernetic control model of skeletal muscle’, Biological Cybernetics, 25(2), pp. 103–119. doi:10.1007/BF00337268

Hatze, H. (1981) ‘A comprehensive model for human motion simulation and its application to the take-off phase of the long jump’, Journal of Biomechanics, 14(3), pp. 135–142. doi: 10.1016/0021-9290(81)90019-1       

He, J., Levine, W. S. and Loeb, G. E. (1991) ‘Feedback gains for corecting small pertubation to standing posture’, IEEE trans auto con, 36(3), pp. 322–332. doi: 10.1109/9.73565

Hill, A. V. (1938) ‘The Heat of Shortening and the Dynamic Constants of Muscle’, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 126(843), pp. 136–195. doi: 10.1098/rspb.1938.0050

Huxley, A. F. and Niedergerke, R. (1954) ‘Structural changes in muscle during contraction; interference microscopy of living muscle fibres’, Nature, 173(4412), pp. 971–973. doi: 10.1038/173971a0

Huxley, A. F. and Simmons, R. M. (1971) ‘Proposed mechanism of force generation in striated muscle.’, Nature, 233, pp. 533–538. doi: 10.1038/233533a0

van Ingen Schenau, G. J. and Cavanagh, P. R. (1990) ‘Power equations in endurance sports’, Journal of Biomechanics, 23(9), pp. 865–881. doi: 10.1016/0021-9290(90)90352-4

Miller, D. I. and Nelson, R. C. (1973) Biomechanics of Sport. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.

Shapiro, R. (1978) ‘Direct linear transformation method for 3D cinematography’, Research Quarterly. American Alliance for Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 49(2), pp. 197–205.

Winter, D. A. (1976) ‘Calculation and interpretation of mechanical energy of movement’, Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 6(1), pp. 183–256.

Winter, D. A. (1983) ‘Energy generation and absorption at the ankle and knee during fast, natural, and slow cadences’, Clinical orthopaedics and related research, 175, pp. 147–154.

Winter, D. A. (2009) Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Movement. 4th edn. John Wiley & Sons.

Witkin, A. and Kass, M. (1988) ‘Spacetime constraints’, Proceedings of the 15th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques - SIGGRAPH ’88, 22(4), pp. 159–168. doi: 10.1145/378456.378507

Zatsiorsky, V. M. (1998) Kinematics of Human Motion. Human Kinetics.

Zatsiorsky, V. M. (2002) Kinetics of Human Motion. Human Kinetics.

Zatsiorsky, V. M. and Prilutsky, B. I. (2012) Biomechanics of Skeletal Muscles. Human Kinetics.

Zernicke, R. F., Goulet, G. C., Cavanagh, P. R., Nigg, B. M., Ashton-Miller, J. A., Mckay, H. A. and Van Den Bogert, T. (2012) ‘Impact of Biomechanics Research on Society’, Kinesiology Review, 1, pp. 5–16. doi: 10.1123/krj.1.1.5

History and Purpose

The International Society of Biomechanics (ISB) was founded at Penn State University on August 30, 1973 to promote the study of all areas of biomechanics at the international level. The ISB promotes and supports international contacts amongst scientists, the dissemination of knowledge, and the activities of national organizations in the field of biomechanics. The ISB has a broad view of the science and application of biomechanics, believing that biomechanics has a major role in the study of all biological systems, from the level of the whole organism down to molecular size scales. Therefore, the Society's membership includes scientists from a large variety of disciplines including anatomy, physiology, engineering (biomedical, mechanical, mechatronics, etc.), orthopedics, rehabilitation medicine, sports science, sports medicine, ergonomics, electrophysiological kinesiology and others.

Since its founding the ISB has grown to a membership of well over 1,000 people. The Society provides for affiliate membership of national biomechanics organizations, which currently include the American Society of Biomechanics, British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Bulgarian Society of Biomechanics, Canadian Society of Biomechanics, Chinese Society of Sports Biomechanics, Comisia de Biomecanica Inginerie si Informatica (Romania), Czech Society of Biomechanics, Danish Society of Biomechanics, Japanese Society of Biomechanics, Korean Society of Sport Biomechanics, Polish Society of Biomechanics, Russian Society of Biomechanics, Societe de Biomecanique (France), The Society also supports technical and working groups for the purpose of advancing knowledge in specialized areas within the field of biomechanics. Currently active technical sections include Computer Simulation, Shoulder Biomechanics, Footwear Biomechanics, 3-D Motion AnalysisHand and Wrist Biomechanics and Motor Control Group.

The ISB is involved in many activties to promote biomehanics internationally. These activities include the organization of biennial ISB-international congresses, publication of congress proceedings and a biomechanics monograph series, distribution of a quarterly newsletter (ISBNow), and sponsorship of scientific meetings related to biomechanics. The ISB is affiliated with the Journal of Biomechanics, the Journal of Applied Biomechanics, Clinical Biomechanics, the Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, and Gait and Posture. The Society also has a major Internet presence with the ISB on Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn, as well as sponsoring the Biomechanics Forum, Biomch-l.

The major activity of the Society is the organization and conduct of its biennial International Congress on Biomechanics. This provides a unique opportunity for participants to gain an understanding of the current status of the field and make valuable personal and professional contacts. To promote international development of the field, congresses are held in different countries. The recent congresses were held in USA, Taiwan, South Africa, Belgium and Brazil, with next being held in Glasgow, Scotland. The Proceedings and Books of Abstracts from these biennial congresses, as well as the separately published Keynote and Award-winning papers, are a valuable contribution to research literature and also serve to document the progress of the field of biomechanics. Recent ISB Congress proceedings back until 2001, with some Keynotes and Tutorials, are freely available online.

Sponsorship and Related Scientific Meetings

The ISB supports other scientific meetings concerned with biomechanics by serving as an official sponsor, or organising and sponsoring thematic sessions. In this capacity, the Society helps with dissemination of information and promotion of the meetings, encourages members to participate and assists with the planning and organization upon request. The ISB also sponsors and organizes various activities in Economically Developing Countries, including lecture tours and training.

Society Awards

The Society promotes excellence in biomechanics research by presenting a number of Awards at its Congresses. These include the Muybridge Award (the Society's highest honor for outstanding contributions to biomechanics), the Wartenweiler Memorial Lectureship (named after the Society's first President), David Winter Young Investigator Award and Clinical Biomechanics Award for the best papers presented competitively, and an award to the best student paper from an economically developing country. The Society also promotes scholarship through its Educational Programs at Congresses, its Promising Young Scientist Travel Grants scheme, whereby a member is funded to travel to another continent to further a research project, and a range of Student Grants-in-Aid of Research and for Congress attendance.

Benefits of Membership

  • Reduced Journal Subscription Rates.
  • Reduced Registration Fees at ISB Congresses and those of Affiliate Societies.
  • Opportunity to form international contacts and participate in technical and working groups of the Society.
  • Special Student Discounts and Grants-in-Aid.
  • Congressional Awards and Traveling Scholarships.
  • Unrestricted access to the ISB website.

Membership Application Procedure

Go to the Membership section of this website. Membership dues and subscription fees can be paid by either (i) a credit card debit authorization, or (ii) a cheque or money order in Australian dollars and drawn on an Australian Bank.

Executive Council

The ISB is governed by its Executive Council composed of the officers and council members who are elected by mail ballot for two year terms. They represent countries from throughout the world and various scientific areas within biomechanics. The council, which meets annually, provides leadership for the continued development of the Society. Many on-going activities are performed by Council appointed sub-committees such as publications, standards and terminology, award nominations, and others. The quarterly Newsletter serves to inform the members of current and future events and developments.

You many contact any member of the Executive Council for further information